Over Christmas, I read a wonderful essay (and the related short story and poem) by J. R. R. Tolkien. The essay is titled “On Fairy Stories,” and it can be found, with the related story and poem, in the book Tree and Leaf.
“Fantasy, the making or glimpsing of Other-worlds, was the heart of the desire of the Faërie.”(41)
I highly recommend this essay to every fantasy writer, especially the Christian one, but as we are all very busy people and have reading lists miles long, I want to share with you my favorite descriptions, rules, and principles of the fairy story in a shorter form: the blog post. I hope that you will take away some valuable instruction about writing fantasy and hopefully get inspired to read the essay for yourself (Here is an online link that I discovered—proceed at your own risk).
Curiosities of the Faërie
These are just some interesting quotes that reminded me of special aspects about fantasy that I had forgotten. Maybe these will inspire stories from you. They definitely inspired me.
“For the trouble with the real folk of Faërie is that they do not always look like what they are….” (Page 8)
“… to us evil an ugliness seems indissolubly allied. We find it difficult to conceive of evil and beauty together. The fear of the beautiful fay that ran through the elder ages almost eludes our grasp. Even more alarming: the goodness is itself bereft of its proper beauty. In Faërie one can indeed conceive of an orge who possesses a castle hideous as a nightmare (for the evil of the orge wills it so), but one cannot conceive of a house built with a good purpose—an inn, a hostel for travelers, the hall of a virtuous and noble king—that is yet sickeningly ugly.” (65)
“… the notion that the life or the strength of a man or creature may reside in some other place or thing; or in some part of the body (especially the heart) that can be detached and hidden in a bag, or under a stone, or in an egg.” (17)
Principles of Faërie
Here is a collection of quotes from Tolkien’s essay about specific traits of fairy stories. As a fantasy writer, I am not considering these points and hope to change my own fantasy in editing to make it truer to what a fairy story should be.
“Even fairy-stories as a whole have three faces: the Mystical towards the Supernatural; the Magical towards Nature; and the Mirror of scorn and pity towards Man.” (26) I would also add ‘honor to Man’ to the third face, and I believe that Tolkien would agree with me– at least C. S. Lewis does: “‘You come of the Lord Adam and the Lady Eve,’ said Aslan. ‘And that is both honour enough to erect the head of the poorest beggar, and shame enough to bow the shoulders of the greatest emperor on earth. Be content.’” (Prince Caspian)
“I had not special childish ‘wish to believe.’ I wanted to know.” (40) We should remember that our readers don’t want to believe in our tale; our readers want to know something real, and we should consider very carefully what they will know about life because of our fantasy.
“Fantasy is a rational not an irrational activity.” (Footnote 1 on 48)
“[F]airy-stories offer also, in peculiar degree or mode, these things: Fantasy, Recovery, Escape, Consolation.” (46)
“And actually fairy-stories deal largely, or (the better ones) mainly, with simple or fundamental things, untouched by Fantasy, but these simplicities are made all the more luminous by their settings.” (59)
Desires that Fantasy Attempts to Satisfy
These desires that Tolkien discusses are deeply philosophical and rooted in his Christianity. Unfortunately, I don’t have time to expound on each quote, as I would not be able to do the quotes justice without a long paper devoted to each. So I will leave you to ponder them (either in your head or in the comments.)
“At least part of the magic that [fairy-stories] wield for the good or evil of man is the power to play on the desires of his body and his heart.” (8)
“The magic of Faërie is not an end in itself, its virtue is in its operations: among these are the satisfaction of certain primordial human desires.” (13)
“Ones of these [desires] is to survey the depths of space and time.” (13)
“I might venture to say [that fairy-stories should attempt to] “see things as we are (or were) meant to see them’—as things apart from ourselves.” (58)
“Creative fantasy, because it is mainly trying to do something else (make something new), may open your hoard and let all the locked things fly away like cage-birds. The gems all turn into flowers or flames, and you will be warned that all you had (or knew) was dangerous and potent, not really effectively changed, free and wild; no more yours than they were you.” (59)
“Another is (as will be seen) to hold communion with other living things.” (13) Lewis mentioned that this is why Fantasy often includes talking animals, animate trees, and so forth.
“And lastly there is the oldest and deepest desire, the Great Escape: the Escape from Death.” (68) And this is why Fantasy has elves. I think I have been treating my elves too frivolously.
Joy: The Requirement of the Fairy-Story
“And he lived happily ever after to the end of his days.” (The Hobbit) These quotes are pointing to the biblical “Day of the Lord” when Christ will come again and creation will be redeemed. This is a very challenging part of the fairy-story to achieve– just as difficult or even more so that the tragic ending.
“But the ‘consolation’ of fairy-stories has another aspect than the imaginative satisfaction of ancient desires. Far more important is the Consolation of the Happy Ending. Almost I would venture to assert that all complete fairy-stories must have it…. I will call it Eucatastrophe. That eucatastrophic tale is the true form of fairy-tale, and its highest function.” (68)
“In its fairy-tale—or otherworld—setting, [the joyous turn] is a sudden and miraculous grace: never to be counted on to return…. It denies… universal final defeat and in so far is evangelium, giving a fleeting glimpse of Joy, Joy beyond the walls of the world, poignant as grief.” (69)
“The peculiar quality of the ‘joy’ in successful Fantasy can thus be explained as a sudden glimpse of the underlying reality or truth. It is not only a ‘consolation’ for the sorrow of this world, but a satisfaction, and an answer to that question [that children ask], ‘Is it true?’” (71)
Fantasy as Sub-creation
Ever thought of writing fantasy as a human right? Did you ever think that Fantasy Writer is a role inherited from the divine? Think again. (Also read the poem, “Mythopoeia,” if this interests you– I was going to put a quote from it in here, but I could not choose a single one, so go read the full thing instead.)
“We may put a deadly green upon a man’s face and produce a horror; we may make the rare and terrible blue moon to shine; or we may cause woods to spring with silver leaves and rams to wear fleeces of gold, and put hot fire into the belly of the cold worm. But in such ‘fantasy’, as it is called, a new form is made; Faërie begins; Man becomes a sub-creator.” (22-23)
“Fantasy remains a human right: we make in our measure and in our derivative mode, because we are made: and not only made, but made in the image and likeness of a Maker.” (56)
An Address to the Jaded Student of Faërie (aka you and me)
I know this quote in long, but you may need to hear it. I know that I did.
“The analytic study of fairy-stories is as bad a preparation for the enjoying or the writing of them as would be the historical study of the drama of all lands and times for the enjoying or writing of stage-plays. The study may indeed become depressing. It is easy for the student to feel that with all his labour he is collecting only a few leaves, many of them now torn or decaying, from the countless foliage of the Tree of Tales, with which the Forest of Days is carpeted. It seems vain to add to the litter. Who can design a new leaf? The patterns from bud to unfolding, and the colours from spring to autumn were all discovered by men long ago. But that is not true. The seed of the tree can be replanted in almost an soil, even in one so smoke ridden (as Lang said) as that of England. Spring is, of course, not really less beautiful because we have seen or heard of other like events: like events, never from world’s beginning to world’s end the same event. Each leaf, of oak and ash and thorn, is a unique embodiment of the pattern, and for some eye this very year may be the embodiment, the first ever seen and recognized, though oaks have put forth leaves for countless generations of men.
“We do not, or need not, despair of drawing because all lines must be either curved or straight, not of painting because there are only three ‘primary’ colours. We may indeed be older now, in so far as we are heirs in enjoyment or in the practice of many generations of ancestors in the arts. In this inheritance of wealth there may be a danger of boredom or of anxiety to be original, and that may lead to a distaste for fine drawing, delicate pattern, and ‘pretty’ colours, or else to mere manipulation and over-elaboration of old material, clever and heartless. But the true road of escape from such weariness is not to be found in the willfully awkward, clumsy, or misshapen, not in the making all things dark or unremittingly violent; not in the mixing of colours on through subtlety to drabness, and the fantastical complication of shapes to the point of silliness and on towards delirium. Before we reach such states we need recovery. We should look at green again, and be startled anew (but not blinded) by blue and yellow and red. We should meet the centaur and the dragon, and then perhaps suddenly behold, like the ancient shepherds, sheep, and dogs, and horses—and wolves. This recovery fairy-stories help us to make. In that sense only a taste for them may make us, or keep us, childish.” (56-57)
I hope that you enjoyed this (rather long but hopefully not tedious) listing of quotes about fairy-stories. Do you disagree with anything that Tolkien claimed? Is there anything that stuck out to you that you want to include in your story?
Now I am going to think over this essay again (as I continue to edit my novel) and ponder just how much of my fairy-story I will need to rewrite after I finish these edits.